Thursday, September 5, 2013

Gobbledy Gook

This post is a pondering of the so called 'globulettes' of the Rosette Nebula. The globulettes are located near a cluster of newborn stars.

A few months ago Gahm, Persson, Mäkelä and Haikala released a study of the globulettes based on observations taken from a few telescopes across the world:
Context. Tiny molecular clumps are abundant in many H ii regions surrounding newborn stellar clusters. In optical images these so-called globulettes appear as dark patches against the background of bright nebulosity. The majority of the globulettes were found to be of planetary mass in a previous optical investigation, while the largest objects may contain more than half a solar mass.
. . .
Results. Practically all globulettes were detected in our CO survey. The observed (3–2) and (2–1) line temperatures range from 0.6 K to 6 K, the being a third of this. As a rule, the lines are narrow, ~1.0 km s-1. The best fit to observed line ratios and intensities was obtained by assuming a model composed of a cool and dense centre and warm and dense surface layer. This model provides estimates of maximum and minimum mass; the average masses range from about 50 to 500 Jupiter masses, which is similar to earlier estimates based on extinction measures. The selected globulettes are dense, nH ~ 104 cm-3, with very thin layers of fluorescent H2 emission, showing that the gas is in molecular form just below the surface. The NIR data show that several globulettes are very opaque and contain dense cores. No infrared-excess stars in the fields are associated with globulettes. Internal gas motions are weak, but some larger objects show velocity-shifted components associated with tails. However, most globulettes show no signs of tails or pronounced bright rims in contradiction to current numerical simulations of clumps exposed to intense stellar radiation. Because of the high density encountered already at the surface, the rims become thin, as evidenced by our Pβ images, which also show extended emission that most likely comes from the backside of the globulettes. We conclude that the entire complex of shells, elephant trunks, and globulettes in the northern part of the nebula is expanding with nearly the same velocity of ~22 km s-1, and with a very small spread in velocity among the globulettes. We note that the velocities observed for background shells do not fit into a spherically expanding nebular complex.
. . .
Conclusions. Some globulettes are in the process of detaching from elephant trunks and shells, while other more isolated objects must have detached long ago and are lagging behind in the general expansion of the molecular shell. Several globulettes are presently subject to heavy erosion from the intense radiation field from the central stars and eject gas streams (tails), while other quite isolated objects lack such signatures. We envision that after detachment, the objects erode to isolated and dense clumps. The suggestion that some globulettes might collapse to form planetary-mass objects or brown dwarfs is strengthened by our finding of dense cores in several objects. Such free-floating low-mass objects would move at high speed from the start and escape from the region.


Full abstract of their paper Mass and Motion of the globulettes in the Rosette Nebula here

In another earlier paper titled Globulettes as Seeds of Brown Dwarfs and Free-Floating Planetary-Mass Objects, Gahm, Grenman, Fredriksson, and Kristen write:

Since the globulettes are not screened from stellar light by dust clouds farther in, one would expect photoevaporation to dissolve the objects. However, surprisingly few objects show bright rims or teardrop forms. We calculate the expected lifetimes against photoevaporation. These lifetimes scatter around 4 × 106 yr, much longer than estimated in previous studies and also much longer than the free-fall time. We conclude that a large number of our globulettes have time to form central low-mass objects long before the ionization front, driven by the impinging Lyman photons, has penetrated far into the globulette. Hence, the globulettes may be one source in the formation of brown dwarfs and free-floating planetary-mass objects in the galaxy.

Free floating Planetary-Mass Objects are planets that do not orbit around a star. There is a movement in planetary science to push for these globulettes as possible origins for free floating planets such as Brown Dwarfs. Brown dwarfs and free-floating planets are according to some mainstream gobbedly gook, thought to be large astronomical objects that fail to ignite into a star. After their failed ignition they wander through the galaxy without a parent star. The globulettes of the Rossette Nebula offer to the mainstream a possible way of explaining the formation of free floating planets or brown dwarfs.  So in addition to nebular hypothesis there is this new guess on how planets may form apart from protoplanetary disk that orbits a newborn star.  



The "Globulettes" of the Rosette Nebula are circled. Notice how they are flanked by active stars as well as some billows of gas and dust.

Yet Abruzzo wisely pointed out in his paper Brown Dwarfs the "Missing Link" that brown dwarfs and sub-brown dwarfs fill in the missing gap between active-fusing stars and gas-giant planets. In his stellar transformation hypothesis brown dwarfs are older than fusing stars but younger than gas giants. They provide a continuous framework for evolution of stars into planets. My friend Wolynski came up with similar concepts in his Stellar Metamorphosis Theory. To him Jupiter and Saturn are brown dwarfs that have been adopted by the Sun. To him a planet that failed to ignite is like a plant that did not come from a seed.  Globulettes are not seeds of brown dwarfs and free floating planets rather new active stars are the seeds of these rogues.  

What are the Globulettes of the Rossette Nebula?

My conclusion is that a globulette is a concept that combines an old dark star; its motion through a nebula and the gas and dust it has accumulated in its course through the nebula.  I assume that the globulettes in the above image and perhaps others observed are spherical objects with mishappen cocoons of dust and gas taken in from the nebula and surrounding newer active stars.  Some of the globulettes may be a binary even a tertiary system of old dark stars that have moved through the nebula and took on a cloak of dust and gas.


The studies presented by the scientists suggest that the globulletes have cool dense cores and hot dense surfaces. They are a group of very old inactive stars that have metamorphosed from their young and active fusion-compression stage. This is why the cores of the globulettes are seemingly cooler than the surrounding dust and gas. They are planets in the act of migrating through the nebula; bathing in its gas and dust molecules. The dense cores of the globulettes were formed in a process of fusion and compression billions of years prior to their motion within the Rossette Nebula. They simply are not captured and orbiting a newer star in a conventional type solar system at the present.

In their course through the nebula these old stars have pulled in some of its dust and gas. This is what you see in the image. They have attracted the warmer dust and gas of the nebula. The surrounding newborn stars are helping a few of these old stars strip off the gas and dust in their march away from the nebula.  This is why a few have tails.  Others have escaped the influence of the newer stars and thus have no tails.  The excess dust and gas not assimilated into the old dark star will eventually fall out into space revealing what was always hidden: an old dark star. Only after passing through the nebula its surface is renewed by the new supply of nebular dust and gas.  Passing through a nebula is an extrinsic manner in which an old dark star, such as Earth may have taken in its rare elements.

     
Like our Sun, these old dark stars have been orbiting the stars of the galactic center for billions of years. Under Gaede's Thread Theory all atoms of all the stars that make up a galaxy are connected via electromagnetic ropes.  In this frame of the Universal Movie I assume the atoms of the old dark stars cocooned with nebular dust and gas are swung through the nebula and by the cluster of newborn stars via stars located in the galactic core. The stars at the galactic core swing stars located in the middle of the galaxy like a merry go round. This is why these objects in question are travelling at 80,000 km/hour and breaking free of the nebula. They are as if you fastened a few tennis balls at the end of a rope and swung them through a cloud of smoke and dust. Their angular momentum is generated via their rope-like connection to the stars of the galactic core.  They have orbited the galaxy for billions of years and the astronomers happened to capture an image of them exiting the Rosette Nebula.  Prior to exiting they passed through and entered this nebula in their galactic rotation.

The old dark stars are composed of many atoms and so they pull in some of the nebular gas and dust by strength of numbers as they course through the nebula from one end to the other. They may also be magnets attracting in some dust and gas. They also receive dust and gas from the surrounding active stars that push atoms in their active state (e.g. stellar wind).  They have yet to assimilate all of the the gas and dust they attracted in their course. This is why they appear misshaped. But if one could penetrate their opacity I wager he would see old spherical objects: cinders of what were once stars. The cores of the globulettes are cool because they are old dark stars. The surfaces are warm because the assumed gas and dust atoms of the nebula is stimulated by the cluster of newer stars.

An old transformed star's migration through a nebula is an extrinsic albeit natural manner in which it will take in a portion of its elemental and molecular make-up. Most of its elements and molecules are homegrown in an intrinsic-inborn process of fusion, compression, deposition, and cooling. Some less others are assimilated in its march through the galaxy, through nebula or through protoplanetary disks. They generate gravity and perhaps magnetism as they pass through disks and clouds of gas and dust pulling in some elements made by other stars. Earth may have passed through a nebula and taken in a portion of its water supply prior to entering into its merry go round the Sun. This is also how the Earth may have picked up some of her rare heavy elements such as silver and uranium. She probably passed through the remnants of a neutron star collision and assumed traces of uranium and other exotic elements. By the time she pulled in these elements her essence (everything from core to surface) was well formed. Of course the debris of such a collision may be mixed into a nebula but it is good to know where these heavy elements come from.

Not all stars transform to what are labelled planets and moons. Larger stars develop into neutron stars and other exotic stars rich in heavier elements with an abundance of neutrons. Exotic neutron stars collide and disperse their exotic elements for other stars to assimilate into their essence. But not all stars end up as these. Other, perhaps smaller stars metamorphose over a period of tens of billions of years into the planets and moons that we observe orbiting newer stars such as our sun.

Mainstream science cannot conceive of the notion that many stars, maybe most, ultimately compress into planets. The reason is deep seated: ultimately rooted in language use that arose centuries ago in addition to the fact that they have no physical interpretation of light, gravity, magnetism and electricity as well as their cutthroat protection of the Big-Bang hypothesis with its universal age limit imposed on all.

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