Sunday, September 29, 2013

Universe and Matter in Genesis 1:2?

In a beginning, God had created the form of Heaven and the form of Earth
And when Earth was an astonishing-desert . . .

Universe and Matter Interpretation

Some choose to interpret the universe and matter into the first two verses of Genesis 1. If they choose this route they are tasked with convincing the jury that God and the sacred author used figurative language in this context, e.g. Earth figuratively refers to matter. They are also tasked with defining the key words universe and matter in no uncertain terms. Then they are tasked with convincing the jury that their definitions of the key words universe and matter is what God and the sacred author directly intended to communicate to the reader via the figures they chose. For example you will have to explain how the sacred author knew your definition of matter's creation ex nihilo well enough to describe it using figures of speech. Did the sacred author see matter, figure it as the Earth, and then describe it as a tohu wabohu??? Or did the sacred author go to school in Greece, learn Aristotle's concepts of matter and decide to put it in his own words???  Is it even possible that the sacred author referred to matter via the word 'Earth'???

Similar with those commentators who wish to adopt a models of modern physics and assume them to the Sacred Text. Convince me, the jury, that the sacred author saw the Big-Bang or studied general and special relativity as well as quantum mechanics at Oxford. Convince me that the sacred author saw the Higg's Boson field and particle and decided to represent it with the words Earth and tōhû wābōhû.

History of Matter Interpretations

In his survey of Genesis 1 translations and interpretations through the ages Jaki begins with the ancient Jewish sages who lived after the Hellenistic invasion of the Middle East. He mentions:

"Some took the tohu and bohu as the prime matter from which light and darkness were respectively created." (Jaki, Stanley J. Genesis Through the Ages, Chapter 1: Genesis 1 and Jewish Sages, p. 37)

Some Jewish sages were likely influenced by Grecian notions of matter perhaps Aristotle's. Aristotle's vague matter concept was linked to his change of substance and form concepts. These terms were used rather ambiguously. But the problem with this line of interpretation of that the concept 'matter' was not something the ancient Hebrew author conceived of. He lived well before Aristotle and the Grecian philosophers. This alone should rule out the matter interpretation of Gen 1:2. Do you really think the ancient Hebrew sacred author and possible prophet knew of the Greek concepts of matter? If so which Greek philosopher did he follow?  Aristotle or Democritus?  Is it even possible to retain intellectual honesty when travelling down this foreign interpretive path?

Through history the matter interpretation continues to appear. Some Christians have adopted the matter interpretation. Saint Basil, a Church Father from the 4th century was up in arms concerning the matter interpretation:

But the corrupters of the truth, who, incapable of submitting their reason to Holy Scripture, distort at will the meaning of the Holy Scriptures, pretend that these words mean matter. For it is matter, they say, which from its nature is without form and invisible,—being by the conditions of its existence without quality and without form and figure. (Basil Hexaemeron, Homily II)

My favorite example of the sloppy matter interpretation is taken from the drunken-opium induced proto-god of modern cosmology: Edgar Allan Poe. After his wife died Poe entered into a severe depression and penned a delusional book called Eureka: A Prose Poem. In this book he used a lousy translation of Gen 1:2, in particular tōhû wābōhû to help him dream up a primitive version of the ridiculous Big-Bang model:

We have attained a point where only Intuition can aid us: — but now let me recur to the idea which I have already suggested as that alone which we can properly entertain of intuition. It is but the conviction arising from those inductions or deductions of which the processes are so shadowy as to escape our consciousness, elude our reason, or defy our capacity of expression. With this understanding, I now assert — that an intuition altogether irresistible, although inexpressible, forces me to the conclusion that what God originally created — that that Matter which, by dint of his Volition, he first made from his Spirit, or from Nihility, could have been nothing but Matter in its utmost conceivable state of — what? — of Simplicity?
Let us now endeavor to conceive what Matter must be, when, or if, in its absolute extreme of Simplicity. Here the Reason flies at once to Imparticularity — to a particle — to one particle — a particle of one kind — of one character — of one nature — of one size — of one form — a particle, therefore, “without form and void” — a particle positively a particle at all points — a particle absolutely unique, individual, undivided, and not indivisible only because He who created it, by dint of his Will, can by an infinitely less energetic exercise of the same Will, as a matter of course, divide it. (Taken from Section 02)

It is good to note that Poe preceded LeMaitre's primeval atom hypothesis by about eighty years.  But notice how ridiculously Poe contradicts himself in the same sentence. He speculates a discrete particle of one form and yet magically 'without form and void'! An object cannot both have a form and not have a form. By definition an object has form. All types of matter, whether the fundamental objects constituting atoms or the atoms themselves this primal quality called FORM. And void refers to nothing.  So then did God disintegrate and then annihilate whatever it was that Earth refers to?

Poe got drunk, inhaled opium and fed off of bad translations. Poe's folly illustrates the faultiness of the 'formless', 'without form', 'shapeless', 'without shape' and 'void' translations of the Hebrew tōhû wābōhû.  These translations are heavily influenced by outdated Aristotelian and Scholastic philosophical notions. Philosophic notions such as matter and form and substance have no bloody place in Genesis 1.
   
In our times commentators continue to read space and matter into the first couple of verses of Genesis 1. Some examples include:

Rev. John F. McCarthy: On the plain and superficial level, the earth (haarets) in verse 1 means the land inhabited by man, whether it be thought of as a globe, a disk, or just a territory with as yet unknown borders. On the technical literal level it seems to mean primal matter as the ground of all future corporeal beings.

in another place


Taking, then, a model of modern physics, we can interpret the text as saying that, on the most elementary subatomic level, the "earth" spoken of here is the primal matter which was created as the "ground" of all more organized matter and which was infinitesimal, unstructured, minimally informed, and in a totally fluid state. (see his page:  http://www.rtforum.org/) 

McCarthy supports the concordist school of interpretation and it seems that he manipulates words at will. 

Pastor Bill Randles: The first verse of the Bible,is a summation of all that exists, for there is only Creator and creation. The infinite, personal, almighty, and Holy God made the heavens, (Space) and the Earth, (Matter) in the beginning, (Time). [...] The text simply tells us that when God created matter, it was originally in a formless state, waiting for his creative hand to give shape to it. Our physical world was created first in a formless state, and also in a state of darkness, for it pleased God to shape , and energize the world in later stages of Creation. (see his page:  http://billrandles.wordpress.com/2013/05/26/creation-ex-nihilo-genesis-1-pt-2/)

So Heaven refers to space and Earth to matter.  Space and matter are concepts.  God doesn't create concepts, He creates objects. Created objects relate via objects (mediators) and we conceptualize their relations.


Lakeside Ministries:  "WITHOUT FORM AND VOID" [. . .] THE ESSENTIAL MEANING, THEREFORE, IS: "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth (or SPACE and MATTER), and the matter so created was at first unformed and uninhabited." [. . .] The created cosmos, as discussed earlier, was a tri-universe of TIME, SPACE, and MATTER. Initially there were no stars or planets, only the basic matter component of the space-matter-time continuum. The elements that were to be formed into the planet Earth were at first only elements, not yet formed but nevertheless comprising the basic matter- the "DUST" of the earth. (reference:  http://lakesideministries.com/1stCovenant/Genesis/04_GenSect0102_Creation_Itself.htm)

So the Middle Eastern Hebrew author conveniently conceived of a tri-universe of Time, Space and Matter---all Western concepts.        

Some few have even tried to fit the Big-Bang into the first three verses (e.g. Gerald Schroeder). The Earth refers to the universe or prime matter (whatever that is), tohu and bohu refers to the state of prime matter, the darkness over faces of waters refers to space-time, the Spirit is moving over space-time and then Bang! Flash! There is light. Out go the discrete photon particles which miraculously stretch as waves. About 13.8 billion years later the scientists detect them with their grand technology and some interpreters proclaim to the world that Genesis 1 was always right after all!!! We have proof in the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. And so on. Apparently the sacred author studied mathematical physics and knew that relativity breaks down at the quantum level. He was a follower of Lemaitre, Einstein, Hubble, and the gang.  Maybe he built a satellite.  Or perhaps he had a vision of the Big-Bang. What do you think?

Personal intentions aside, I think that those who read in prime matter or Big-Bang in the second verse of Genesis join the ranks of drunks, charlatans and frauds. There is no justification for reading the creation of matter into the first sequence of Genesis 1 period. It is an unsound interpretation. Sober minds snub their noses at these ridiculous interpretations.  They betray a lack of humility and respect for the Sacred Script.  For whatever reason men try to wed Genesis 1 to the physics and/or philosophy of the day.  Or they get delusional.  Instead of coming up with creative solutions with what has been given in the Text they get delusions of grandeur.  Of course there are also those at the other end of the spectrum who sell out completely.  

Conclusion of the Above  

Throughout history matter has been ill-defined. It is a joke of a word. People, including scientists, use it for anything and everything. The sacred author could have cared less about matter. To imagine the sacred author thought of or saw the creation of what would have been to him unknown material and then describe it using figures is an unacceptable stretch of the imagination. Rather, the planet Earth is the important object to the sacred author since this is the location where all the supernatural events that he relates take place. And it is important to us since we are conceived and born on Earth, live on Earth and will certainly die on Earth.

A central theme of Genesis 1 is the Earth.  This does not imply that the Earth is the center of the universe. This was read into the Text by the ancients. Genesis 1 has nothing to do with physics or philosophy, Greeks or ANE myths, moderns or ancients, believers or atheists, medievals or post-Moderns, rabbis or priests, Popes or gurus, creation ex nihilo or an eternal universe, Big-Bang or the cosmological principle. Genesis 1 has everything to do with a miraculous course of events God wrought on Earth in the past and showed to the sacred author who in-errantly recorded them in the third person.  That is all.  

The Definition of Matter

I now want to share the definition of the universe and matter that I have inherited in order to confirm that there is no possible way the sacred author could be referring to these in the first and second verse of the Bible.

The universe is a concept. It is a binary conceptual system that relates space and matter. Space is a sheer concept that refers to nothing in existence. It is all 'where' and no 'what'. Space is distance.  We discovered that space is in fact nothing when we launched the space probes. There is no objective aether-medium out there. There is no such thing as space-time. Space does not have a bloody form and neither does time.  Objects do not occupy space or time. We imagine space and time, and then hopefully define these words but objects are just there, they cannot be defined.
Matter is a concept that relates the fundamental, microscopic, invisible objects of the universe. The fundamental physical objects are structured into atoms.

I hold to Gaede's EM Rope Hypothesis and Thread Theory.*** In Gaede's Model there is no such thing as discrete quantum particles. The supposition is that all the atoms of the universe are formed by and connected by a taut two strand continuous rope-like structure affectionately called the EM rope. The EM ropes are comprised of an Electric Thread and a Magnetic Thread that run anti-parallel twisting around each other like a strand of DNA. The E and M threads are, so to speak, the yin and yang of the universe. 

EM ropes are continuously induced to rotation of various link-lengths (frequency) and link-heights (amplitude) by the pumping and vibrating of the atoms formed into them.  Atoms exchange or give and receive links of EM rope by expansion and contraction. The EM ropes torque light signals. In Gaede's book energy is defined as "an aggregate of torque signals traveling radially along each of the ropes that connect an atom with the remaining atoms in the Universe." (WGDE, p. 276)



Mike Huttner's depiction of Gaede's hypothesis

The Definition of Matter: the relation of the fundamental, microscopic, invisible objects of the universe. The two fundamental objects are an Electric Thread and a Magnetic Thread. The E and M Threads are in reality a single closed loop thread woven into two fundamental structural units that are the EM ropes and hydrogen atoms.  The distinction of the E and M threads lies in the direction of their separation at the atomic perimeters.  

The EM ropes are the missing dark matter of the universe.  They physically bind all atoms.  They are the physical entities responsible for the gravitational effects. They do not emit or absorb EM radiation since they are the entities conveying signals between atoms while mediating gravity. You cant see that which mediates light itself. It just happens that these also mediate gravity. 

All the EM ropes of the universe converge forming all atoms. The magnetic threads arc out at the atomic perimeter forming a definite physical surface. The balloon-like shell of separated M threads is known as the electron. On the other hand the electric threads go straight to the center criss-crossing in a structure that resembles koosh ball. These are the protons. So a koosh ball of electric threads is cocooned by an interlaced shell of magnetic threads. Any two of the gazillion E and M threads re-twist at the atomic perimeter and 'extend out' connecting all atoms of the universe.




One of Gaede's basic illustrations of his hydrogen atom



Gaede's Proton resembles a koosh ball nestled in an electron cacoon  

The fundamental objects of the universe or if you prefer the 'building blocks' of matter are shaped as an Electric thread and a Magnetic thread. These are supposed to be single continuous looped thread that weaves all EM ropes that separate into all atoms. Perhaps God created this immeasurably vast single looped thread from nothing and shaped it into an energetic network of atoms in a miracle. The electric and magnetic threads are 3D physical shapes (not fields) that exist separately only where they separate to form atoms. Some of the M threads are so slackened at the atomic perimeter that they fan in an immense arc that is responsible for magnetic effects. Where they are not separated the 'yin and yang' exist only as torquing EM rope. 

Thus there are two basic units of matter namely the hydrogen atom and the EM rope. Hydrogen atoms are one type of fundamental unit of matter since they are woven by Electric threads and Magnetic threads. EM ropes connected all atoms is the other type of fundamental unit of matter since they are Electric threads twisted around Magnetic threads. Atoms jump inducing the EM rope to torque continuously conveying signals to all atoms of the network. This is light phenomenon. Relative to the H-atom the torquing EM rope is for all practical purposes a surface-less type matter yet nevertheless it is a 3D shape comprised of twisting E and M thread orders of magnitude thinner than the H-atom, perhaps at what the quantum mechanics call the fine structure. The E thread has a shape, the M thread has a form, the EM rope has a shape, and the Hydrogen atoms and all atoms have forms. Matter without form or formless matter is an oxymoron since Matter is a concept; concepts by definition have no form.  Also the fundamental objects and units of the concept Matter all have shapes.

Heavier atomic elements form in stars via fusion and compression processes. Different types of atoms bond in the processes of stellar evolution or through other processes.

Neutrons are the cross points of EM ropes to all atoms. Neutrons are the convergences of gazillions of EM ropes coming from all atoms of the universe. In interstellar and intergalactic space the torquing EM ropes from all stars or galaxies converge and spontaneously reconfigure into hydrogen atoms, convey torsion signals and then reconfigure back to neutrons. One type of fundamental unit of matter spontaneously forms into another type of fundamental unit of matter. This is Gaede's correction of spontaneous particle/anti-particle production. Discrete particles are not continuously created and annihilated, rather crisscrosses of EM rope spontaneously reconfigure to hydrogen atoms and back again. Perhaps this occurrence is a remnant of what God did in the beginning of matter for it is seemingly un-explainable. In any case the matter of the universe is constant. It neither increases nor decreases.  The network is comprised of gazillions of EM ropes constantly induced to torque by the pumping of gazillions of atoms they separate to form. EM rope has the unique property that allows it to superimpose. This is called light on light.  Light is able to pass through light without interference.   

Universe: space + matter. Space contours the Electromagnetic thread, EM ropes and atoms. Space refers to nothing in existence. God did not create space. God created the objects of matter and angels. Space is not a physical object that can expand, stretch, accelerate, etc. and neither is the universe.

These are some of the understandings of the universe that I proudly adopt from Gaede. The whole point in sharing these is to showcase Gaede's EM rope hypothesis and Thread Theory as well as confirm that God and the sacred author could not have possibly described creation ex nihilo or prime matter in the first and second verses of Genesis. Even if you hold to the ridiculous Big-Bang and Standard Model you would be dreaming if you think you could convince any sound mind that the first three verses of Genesis 1 refers to it. 

In my opinion the angels were created simultaneous to the fundamental object(s) of matter thus they are not fit candidates to be drawn out of few verses of Genesis 1. There are nine choirs of angels and they number probably close to a trillion. They have a vast and complex history that even the prophets and sacred authors know little about. How is one in their sane mind supposed to read the angels creation and history in the first few verses of Genesis 1??? These are rather simple yet no less subtle sentences, but reading the good angels and fallen angels and Hell and the universe and prime matter and Big-Bang, stars and galaxies in this context would be an absurd juggling act which any sane jury would condemn and convict.

Earth

The events of Genesis 1 are frames of the Universal Movie. And yet they were not a result of Mother Nature, but of God emitting His Spirit and supernaturally transforming the face of the Earth. He initiated an exclusive relationship with the Earth that is not found among all the stars of the universe. God accomplished the impossible.

The subject of Gen 1:2 is planet Earth. The Earth of the second verse is not a figure referring to matter or anything else other than the ancient astronomical object under our feet. The second verse picks up with the Earth of the first verse.  She is the new subject and the sacred author adds additional information and modification concerning her.

My speculation is that the Earth of the first verse and second verse is an old dark star that naturally transitioned up to the time when the Spirit was emitted. The assumption that the Earth is the cinder of what was once a star has rarely been suggested through history but it is much more reasonable than the solar nebular assumption. Perhaps it is even suggested in this lofty sequence from the Book of Job.  God speaks to Job:

"Where were you when I laid the foundation of the Earth?
Tell me, if you possess understanding!
Who set its measurements – if you know –
or who stretched a measuring line across it?
​​​​​​​On what were its bases set,
or who laid its cornerstone –
​​​​​​​when the morning stars sang in chorus,
and all the sons of God shouted for joy? (NET)

The formation of the Earth seems to be associated with a time of morning stars perhaps referring to the first stars.

In any case sacred author sets up his story perhaps trillions of years after creation ex nihilo at the previously stated object, the Earth. He did not necessarily have to know that the Earth was a transformed star. This is my interpretive theory to help shed light on the first and second verses of Genesis 1. In the second verse the sacred author speaks of the Earth as an evident object of anterior creation.  What he knew of the Earth's history prior to what he was shown is a moot point.  All he stated was that God had created a definite object he traced as Earth.  I think the sacred author saw the Earth in a vision as if orbiting her like a satellite. He saw her face like we see the face of the Moon from Earth, only he had a closer view. The word he chose to describe the full view of her face was the mystic tōhû wābōhû.  

There are all sorts of talk about the grammar of the second verse and how it fits into sequence of the first three verses e.g. disjunctive clause, circumstantial clause, parenthetical clause. Perhaps the insight that circumscribes all the grammar talk is the suggestion by Westermann that the second verse is a ‘this and not yet that’ description. The Earth is described as she appeared just prior to the main event or the light-event as I call it. The sacred author was not given a prophetic movie of the Earth's entire history.  Instead he was given a some frames of the Earth just prior to God entering the movie.  God was about to manifest Himself to the Universe by transfiguring the Earth via the missive Spirit. He was about to place His seal on the Earth establishing a dynamic relation which has endured to this day. The Spirit was primed to work the Earth and get her atoms pumping and jumping in the cold darkness of interstellar space. It was a very exciting time, and the prophet was fortunate to have been given sight of this great miracle.

The Earth was at that time an old dark star metamorphosed from its younger phase of fusion and compression.  Earth is a cinder of what was once a star!!! In her young phase she welded her solid iron core via intrinsic light, gravitational, electric and magnetic phenomenon. She then shed hers outer layers, cooled and continued to compress (as all stars do). She synthesized molecules and leaked gas in her galactic rotation. She probably passed through several dense interstellar clouds which atomic elements and molecules diversified her makeup. The elements of her essence synthesized and solidified. As she cooled she probably synthesized H2O (Wolynski) helping form her crust or perhaps assimilated some of her H2O from a dense interstellar medium for water is abundant between stars.

Earth was a wandering star. In its latter stages of development the Earth may have even orbited a younger star besides the Sun. But when God initiated the first described event of our Gen 1 story the Earth was swinging about halfway out from the galactic core in the vicinity of a newer star known as the Sun.  God will move the Earth to revolve around Sun later in the story. But when God was about to initiate the light-event the Earth had some sort of core, mantle, crust, a water supply and either no atmosphere or a thin atmosphere. And she was not a ball of chaos. She was slumbering in the cold darkness of space.  Some of her surface froze over and she appeared as an astonishing-desert or wasteland.  She was an ice planet. Not a lot of activity was happening on her surface. There were no living entities. She was waiting to receive the stimulation of the Spirit and glow in the dark!

The seer saw her full face in a prophecy, was mystified and came up with a playful word to first describe her, namely: tōhû wābōhû. There are some excellent scholarly studies of this gem of a Hebrew word and I will raise a few points in the upcoming posts.  

*** For more on Gaede's thought read his book:  Why God Doesn't Exist, visit his webpage youstupidrelativist.com, read many of his other articles on the internet or join the Facebook groups Rational Scientific Method and Rope Hypothesis.  I do not agree with ALL of his thought but his physics is the cream of the crop.  He has quantum mechanics and mathematical physicists with all their irrational assumptions and theories by the throat.  I am very proud to have learned his physics even though I respectfully disagree with some of his thoughts.      

2 comments:

  1. Hey thanks for including the picture of the diagram I made in this article.

    If you could do me a favor though, please at least credit me by name when reposting my original content.

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  2. This comment has been removed by the author.

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