Monday, October 14, 2013

First Technological 'Visualization' of the Hydrogen Bond

Hydrogen bonds hold together the strands of the double helix of DNA. They are also essential to the unique properties of H2O. When it comes to hydrogen bonds the question is simple. What are the bonds made of? What connects the hydrogen atom of one water molecule to the oxygen atom of another molecule? How do water molecules communicate with one another? Do they communicate via an abstract concept such as 'force', 'energy' or 'field'??? Or do they communicate via a continuous 3D physical entity.

A few weeks ago team of Chinese scientists led by led by Xiaohui Qiu and Zhihai Cheng of China’s National Center for Nanoscience & Technology, along with Wei Ji of Renmin University of China used their technological toys [AFM] to detect a hydrogen bond. They isolated an 8-hydroxyquinoline compound, placed it on a copper surface, and lowered in a probe near the surface of the compound. The tip of the probe is a single atom. The electron shell of the atom sweeps the surface of the molecule. The purpose of the experiment is to directly detect the shapes at the surface. Here are some explanations of the experiment:


As mentioned in an earlier comment, we aren't taking optical pictures by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). It is really like he have a record player arm with a little tip on the end. The interaction of the tip with the molecules will force the tip upwards and bend the arm slightly. By using a finely calibrated laser, we can determine how much the arm was bent up and thus infer the surface structure of the molecule in question. Optical pictures are inherently limited by the wavelength of an electron so we can't "take pictures" of anything smaller. But in a sense, yes, we are getting data that can be used to construct a picture of atoms and molecules. . . 
The term microscope is kind of misleading for AFM. There is no collection of optical data. AFM is much more akin to a record player. A needle with a single atom at its tip detects surface features through electrostatic interactions. The image is just a rendering of the data the needle collects. Dynamic data, at least on the order of femtoseconds, will most likely never come from this method, because the needle must scan over the whole molecule to generate a picture. . . 

Atoms are too small for visible light to reflect off of. So, we need to kind of "feel" around them in order to get an idea of what they look like. Atoms have electrons around them, and electrons repel one another. You can visualize atoms by taking advantage of this fact. Atomic force microscopes measure this repulsion by taking one atom attached to a sensitive instrument and moving it around other atoms.***

So the electron shell of the atom placed on the probe spins, interacting with the electron shells of the molecules. 8-hydroxyquinoline is a flat molecular structure. They chose this molecule to make it easier for the probe to scan the surface. Here is a picture of one 8-hydroxyquinoline:



Like I said above the purpose of the experiment is to detect the 3D shapes placed on the copper surface. They placed four 8 hydroxyquinolene molecules on the surface at room temperature supposing they would detect hydrogen bonds connecting the molecules to each other. Here is what they visualized:

Carbon = gray, Hydrogen = white, Oxygen = red, Nitrogen = blue.


First of all notice the contradiction between the real picture and the depiction the scientists use. The real picture has a thin continuous entity going from an H atom to a O or N atom in opposite molecule but the picture the scientists use has a dotted line!

But my question is what are those continuous cables connecting the H atoms of one molecule to the O or N atoms of another molecule? The spinning atomic shell of the probe swept the surface of the entire molecular chain to detect 3D shapes. What are those shapes?


the supposed EM ropes

The bonds are made of an Electric thread and a Magnetic thread twisted taut as a rope like entity. The atoms induce the rope to torque conveying light signals of various link lengths and heights (frequency and amplitude). They also mediate gravitational phenomenon. The EM ropes connect all atoms of the universe and fork out at the atomic perimeters weaving to the proton and electron shell. The proton is the crisscrossing of Electric threads, and the electron is a cocoon of interlacing Magnetic threads.



Under the rope hypothesis neither is there a magical ‘field’ nor do sticks suddenly pop up from the mathematician’s magic hat. Every proton/electron pair is bound to all other proton/electron pairs by exactly two threads, one electric and one magnetic. The ‘hydrogen bond’ interconnecting a hydrogen atom of one water molecule to the oxygen of another consists of exactly 8 ropes, one for each of the proton-electron pairs that comprise oxygen. (Gaede:  page 371 of Why God Doesn't Exist)  

In the picture above there are several hydrogen bonds. The intra-molecular hydrogen bonds connect H to C so the number of EM ropes connecting the two would be exactly six per bond. The inter-molecular bonds connect H to N and H to O respectively: For H to O there would be 8 ropes as in the connection of water molecules. For the H to N there would be 7 ropes. The detection of the atomic probe was not fine enough to pick out the number of EM ropes per 'bond' yet amazingly it did well enough to detect something. Now the quantum mechanics will have to scramble and make up some rationalization.

The 8-hydroxyquinolene molecules are a type of bond that in Thread Theory is an interlacing of Magnetic threads forking out at the atomic perimeters from the EM ropes. That is why I suppose they visualize like fuzzy blobs. The magnetic threads composing the single atom of the probe were repelled by the fanning magnetic threads of the molecules that are interlaced. But when the probe was moved from one molecule to the next it did well enough to detect something of the presence of the supposed EM ropes connecting the atoms to one another.

More Gaede:

‘Hydrogen bonds’ never break because they consist of the ropes that bind any two atoms. This explains why there are H-bonds even in water. It also explains DNA denaturation, the process where heat separates the two strands. Coincidentally, the rungs between DNA backbones are also made up of hydrogen bonds.
High temperature means that the atom is vibrating or moving faster . . Faster vibrations translate into higher frequency (i.e., a greater number of links per unit length along the rope).  The water molecule is thus free to move around. It is not bound rigidly to another molecule. Think of melted butter. When a cold wave comes in, the molecules vibrate at a slower pace. The frequency decreases (i.e., the number of links per unit length along the rope decreases). The atom vibrates and pumps at a slower rate.  Increasingly, the molecules of water lose the liberty to move around. They form permanent rings or pyramids until a warm wave front injects ‘energy’ (high frequency) into them again.  (from page 373 of Why God Doesn't Exist)
Gaede had the hydrogen bond visualized before the technologists did.  



***Source of quotes : http://www.reddit.com/r/science/comments/1nasz9/first_visualization_of_a_hydrogen_bond_using/

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