A grad student from the University of Arizona discovered a new exoplanet. Her name is Vanessa Bailey. Congratulations to her on a fine achievement. This nearby exoplanet supposedly orbits a host star at about 650 AU where AU is the distance from the Sun to the Earth. In terms of star to planet relations this distance is 'astronomical'. :) What is more exoplanet HD 106906b nicknamed Gallifrey after a planet in the British sci-fi T.V. series, Doctor Who, is 11 times the size of Jupiter and its surface is measured to be hotter than the Earth's core. Once again this leaves the astronomers puzzled because Gallifrey defies their notions of planetary formation.
O.k. so let me abstract some quotes from the article I have linked above:
This system is especially fascinating because no model of either planet or star formation fully explains what we see . .Of course not. Nebular hypothesis cannot explain the presence of Gallifrey and no variable plugged into nebular hypothesis will ever be able to explain Gallifrey since it is an old transitioning star that originated from another location in the galaxy and wandered around the galactic core for billions of years prior to swinging near the newer star labelled HD 106906 and possibly locking into orbit. Gallifrey's residual heat is from its active fusing phase. Now it is in a phase of synthesizing elements into chemicals.
According to commonly accepted theories, planets that orbit close to their host star, such as earth are formed by compression of leftover clumps of massive primordial disks of gas and dust that have collapsed and compressed into a star.
These 'commonly accepted theories' have become ridiculous in light of the new Kepler data. In terms of physics there is no rational, conceivable or possible way that an enormous spherical object such as Gallifrey could have clumped together in HD 106906's debris of gas and dust.
An alternative hypothesis suggests that distant giant planets may form in ways similar to mini-binary star systems.
"A binary star system can be formed when two adjacent clumps of gas collapse more or less independently to form stars, and these stars are close enough to each other to exert a mutual gravitation attraction and bind them together in an orbit," Bailey explained.
All systems of the galaxy are star systems (binary, tertiary or otherwise). A planet is simply a cooler star that has transitioned over many billions of years, shedding gazillions of atoms in the process. All the substantial moons orbiting Jupiter are ancient stars and Jupiter in relation to them is a newer star. The Earth and the Moon are a binary star system. Of course Gallifrey formed more or less like all other stars formed but it formed billions of years prior to HD 106906 and only recently swung near by chance.
However, the difference between the masses of two stars in a binary system is typically less than 10 to 1.
"In our case, the mass ratio is more than 100-to-1," she said.
It is 100-to-1 since Gallifrey, in its march around the galaxy has shed some of its outer layers perhaps in a series of novae. In billions of year from now HD 106906 might roughly have the mass of Gallifrey.
She added: "This extreme mass ratio is not predicted from binary star formation theories - just like planet formation theory predicts that we cannot form planets so far from the host star."
The extreme mass ratio is due to the rational supposition that Gallifrey is an ancient star transitioned out of its fusion phase and now continuing to compress and synthesize elements to chemical compounds. Gallifrey formed at least tens of billions of years prior to HD 106906 in another location of the galaxy.
In the HD 106906 system, the star and planet may have collapsed independently, but the materials that clumped together to form the planet were insufficient for it to grow large enough to ignite into a new star, Bailey clarified.
No. Gallifrey is past its 'ignition' phase. It was once a 'main sequence' star and is still a star. All stars are young planets. By the time they arrive a phase where we start classifying them as 'planets' the same objects are ancient stars.
The mysterious planet was discovered using the Magellan Adaptive Optics (MagAO) system and a Clio2 thermal infrared camera mounted on the Magellan telescope in Atacama Desert, Chile.
They do great work, but they should, IMHO, abandon their old stodgy ideas.
"Systems like this one, where we have additional information about the environment in which the planet resides, have the potential to help us disentangle the various formation models," Bailey said.
No. They are falsifying various formation models held by consensus.
Besides, she said: "Future observations of the planet's orbital motion and the primary star's debris disk may help answer that question."
It will be interesting to discover Gallifrey's orbital motion if in fact it is locked into orbit. The distance between the younger star and Gallifrey might be to great to generate gravitational attraction. What I am suggesting is that we might be witnessing the two locking into an orbital regime for the first time in history. 650 AU is an awful great distance. The two may be out of operational range of Newton's inverse square equations.
Maybe Gallifrey is on a 'chance course' to lock up with HD 106906. Perhaps the two are crossing paths for the first time. Gallifrey is moving toward HD 106906 like a bead on an abacus. Once Gallifrey moves close enough to HD 106906 the EM ropes connecting all the atoms of the two stars will eventually 'fan out' in steeper rope angles and effectively generate an ever increasing and instantaneous attraction between the two. Gallifrey should gravitation-ally accelerate toward HD 106906. If Gallifrey is not moving at high enough a velocity it should swing around HD 106906 via the fanned out EM ropes in an inverse square regime. But like I said HD 106906 may not yet be attracting Gallifrey because of the great distance that separates them.
"Every new directly detected planet pushes our understanding of how and where planets can form," said co-investigator Tiffany Meshkat, a graduate student at Leiden Observatory in the Netherlands.
"Discoveries like HD 106906 b provide us with a deeper understanding of the diversity of other planetary systems."
Planetary systems are diverse since they are composed of stars that formed from different clouds of dust and gas in various locations of the galaxy all of which different ages and have undergone a vast history of metamorphosis or transformation while swinging around the galaxy, passing through interstellar clouds, etc. prior to crossing paths and locking together into an inverse square orbital regime.