Sunday, March 2, 2014

A History of Quantum Mechanics (in their own words)

In this article we will explore quantum mechanics in their own words and perhaps discover what makes it so special. 

The Search for the Electron and Light

Discrete Particles:

“ if Newtonian mechanics governed the workings of an atom, electrons would rapidly travel towards and collide with the nucleus.” (Ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wave-particle_duality)

[In other words a solar system model of the atom is irrational. Those fossils thought that the atom--which structure is the very heart of the Universe--would behave like the solar system with electron beads orbiting the nucleus. The architecture of an electron bead whizzing around a proton is a ridiculous notion. It fails conceptually but the math was beautiful and made predictions about Balmer's spectral lines. So they just had to keep it and build a myth.]

De Broglie’s Strikes Back with Integral Waves:

De Broglie: “ If we begin to think of electrons as waves, we’ll have to change our whole concept of what an ‘orbit’ is. Instead of having a little particle whizzing around the nucleus in a circular path, we’d have a wave sort of strung out around the whole circle. Now, the only way such a wave could exist is if a whole number of its wavelengths fit exactly around the circle. If the circumference is exactly as long as two wavelengths, say, or three or four or five, that’s great, but two and a half won’t cut it.” (L. de Broglie, Waves and Quanta, Compt. Ren. 177 (1923) 506, 548, 630)

[Won't cut it??? Neither will a configuration of 2D transverse waves.  What is the undulating physical medium? What’s that stuff waving around the proton??? Just what is that physical entity waving around that proton Sun??? A number? A probability??? No one ever bothered to brainstorm or posit a fundamental fine entity that would serve as the integral 'waves' of the electron. In EM Rope Hypothesis and Thread Theory De Broglie's integral waves are promoted from a concept to supposed objects. They are supposed to be the magnetic threads of a gazillion EM Ropes converging upon the atom. The magnetic threads arc out at the atomic perimeter and weave together so as to enclose the proton as if a cocoon. In various circumstances such as ionization and magnets, the Magnetic Threads loosen out and spin so as to serve as the medium of magnetism.]

Born Synthesizes Waves and Particles:

“ each particle has a probability amplitude describing its position. This amplitude is then called wave function. This is a complex number-valued function of the position coordinates.” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Probability_amplitude)
[Quantum equations describe a region around the nucleus where the mythical electron particle whizzes in orbit. What they are really describing are the locations of the atom where the Electric Threads and Magnetic re-twist out of their proton and electron shell configurations, respectively, and into the EM Ropes which serve as the medium of light signals. These locations could be described as nodes, i.e. the location where the EM Ropes first have minimum amplitude in relation to the atomic structure.]

“ One can either view the wavefunction as a real object that undergoes the wavefunction collapse in the second stage, or one can imagine that the wavefunction is an auxiliary mathematical tool (not a real physical entity) whose only physical meaning is our ability to calculate the probabilities.” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copenhagen_interpretation)
[Convenient Duality. Appalling Contradiction. Quantum Mechanics are in the business of covering all their bases so as to win all their arguments and pass their religion onto the next generation. A wavefunction can only refer to an abstract concept used to described motion.  It can never refer to an object let alone an object that exists (that which has form and location).

The wavefunction is an abstract idea that helps describe the motion of the mediator.  It is not THE mediator.  How could a math idea be the mediator???  Wave behavior refers to an idea. Predefined and THINGS having location wave in a manner consistent with the Schrodinger equation.  It was up to the quantum mechanics to suppose what it is that behaves in a manner consistent with the equation but they failed.]

Heisenberg Saves Bohr’s Planetary Model of the Atom via the Uncertainty Principle:

“ At the instant of time when the position is determined, that is, at the instant when the photon is scattered by the electron, the electron undergoes a discontinuous change in momentum. This change is the greater the smaller the wavelength of the light employed, i.e., the more exact the determination of the position. At the instant at which the position of the electron is known, its momentum therefore can be known only up to magnitudes which correspond to that discontinuous change; thus, the more precisely the position is determined, the less precisely the momentum is known, and vice versa.”

“ In the sharp formulation of the law of causality – ‘if we know the present exactly, we can calculate the future’ – it is not the conclusion that is wrong but the premise.” (Heisenberg, 1927, p. 174-5)

[In other words we cannot understand the atom and its link to light but our equations are beautiful and impeccable thus we must start making up b.s. in order to cement our status as mathematical prophets. We cannot bother to apply critical thinking, rational analysis, brainstorming, etc. thus we will decree uncertainty and render the scientific method as sterile.]

All Heisenberg stated in his elevated prophetic tone is that the when Bohr’s electron ball is at rest (position) it is not in motion (momentum) and when it is in motion (momentum) it is not at rest (position). But in mathematics position is a dynamic concept referencing motion (distance traveled), thus the electron ball moves while it is at rest. So Heisenberg contradicted himself. Heisenberg was only uncertain about what he was talking about.

The electron is in incessant motion. It could not possibly cease from contracting and expanding but for an act of God. But these prophets thought the electron moves and shifts in a sideways direction in relation to the proton like the Earth rotating and changing orbits in relation to the Sun. Schrodinger, who rationally assumed continuity in the atom and all Nature, began to be appalled by their nonsense, but they didn’t stop there.

"Bohr and Heisenberg were separated from Schrodinger by basic philosophical convictions and they were unable to reach common ground from which to consider the atom. Each of them accepted and used the same body of experimental evidence, but they could not agree on the conceptual means to embrace the evidence. Schrodinger looked at the natural world and saw continuity, so he was intellectually offended by energy states and quantum jumps. As he said to Bohr, “If all this damned quantum jumping were here to stay, I should be sorry I ever got involved with quantum theory.”'
(J. S. Rigden, Hydrogen the Essential Element, 83-84, (2002)

The Wave-Particle Duality (Complementarity: Reality is Not Reality, the Solvay Conference)

The quantum mechanics rape the noble field of physics by establishing contradiction after contradiction on their self-proclaimed authority:

“ This confusion over particle versus wave properties was eventually resolved with the advent and establishment of quantum mechanics in the first half of the 20th century, which ultimately explained wave-particle duality.”

[in other words the mechanics decreed that they decide when light can behave as a discrete particle or as a wave. They determine reality by inferring from measurements, observations, experiments and equations---without having to stand before a jury]

“ It is wrong to think that the task of physics is to find out how Nature is. Physics concerns what we can say about Nature.” (Niels Bohr, On Quantum Physics)

[simply because you have decreed it Bohr!!!! Only Math describes Nature (says about Nature) but Physics explains Nature, i.e. makes Her plain and manifest via clear, non-contradictory and well defined language as well as through faithful illustration. Rational Illustration is the language of physics. You, Bohr, disqualified yourself from the noble field of Physics]

“ It is impossible to visualize a wave-particle, so don’t try...”

[The reason is a wave-particle embodies an irrational contradiction. It could not possibly exist or serve as a supposed mediator in physics]

“ With quantum mechanics, an object can be in two places at the same time, as long as you don’t look at it.”

[this in religious terms is called the miracle of bi-location. We are no longer in physics but in religion.]

“Light travels [dynamic] as a wave but departs and arrives [static] as a particle.”

[Quantum's entity that mediates light-phenomenon miraculously transfigures itself en route]

“ In most of the conventional interpretations, such as the version of the Copenhagen interpretation in which the wavefunction is not real…, it is realism that is rejected.” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local_realism)

“ Niels Bohr emphasized that it is only the results of the experiments that should be predicted, and therefore the additional questions are not scientific but rather philosophical.”

[in other words Niels Bohr drops the ball and justifies himself. This is not science.]

“ there is no physical thing that actually ‘waves’ or oscillates. With particle-waves, what oscillates is the probability that the associated particle will be found in one place or another when an experimenter looks for it.” (A tool to measure what happens in empty space, World Science (Oct. 14, 2005)

[So in other words it is the non-existent idea of probability that oscillates and not a physical entity tied to the atom. Insane. All that happened is that the mechanics gave up on their search for structure and visualization of the atom and light. They should have discarded both the wave and the particle models of light and the atom. Instead they united two irreconcilable and irrational models into one and proceeded to describe behavior alone via math always circumventing the pith of the matter.]

Quantum Interpretation of the Slit Experiment 

Young’s Slit Experiment is a perennially difficult experiment to interpret. Only a rational supposition for the entity that mediates light could possibly solve this problem, but instead the mechanics start to get a little crazy with their miracle working particle-wave. In their own words:

“ The Copenhagen interpretation posits the existence of probability waves which describe the likelihood of finding the particle at a given location. Until the particle is detected at any location along this probability wave, it effectively exists at every point. Thus, when the particle could be passing through either of the two slits, it will actually pass through both, and so an interference pattern results. But if the particle is detected at one of the two slits, then it can no longer be passing through both - it must exist at one or the other, and so no interference pattern appears.” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double-slit_experiment)

[in other words the particle is everywhere until we decide where it is via observation. How convenient!!!]

“ It would seem that we must come to terms with this picture of a particle which can be spread out over large regions of space, and which is likely to remain spread out until the next position measurement is carried out… A momentum state may seem hard to accept as a picture of the ‘reality’ of a particle’s existence, but it is perhaps even harder to accept as ‘real’ the two peaked state which occurs when the particle emerges from just having passed through a pair of slits… then we must accept that the particle ‘is’ indeed in two places at once!” (R. Penrose, The Emperor’s New Mind, Oxford UP (1989) p. 252) 
[a particle can work the miracle of bi-location just like God and Jesus]

“ The idea that something can be both a wave and a particle defies imagination, but the existence of this wave-particle duality is not in doubt... The notion of a particle being everywhere at once is impossible to imagine.” (P. Davies, About Time, Touchstone (1995))

[This supposed entity is everything they want it to be and more, namely OMNIPRESENT. They are trying to imagine God]

“ the single photon interference pattern observed in the double slit experiment, can be explained by interference of photons in multiple universes.” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Many_worlds)

[cool! Just like on the Sci-Fi network!]

Einstein Strikes Back with the EPR Experiment
Einstein got sick of the quantum mechanics making him look like a fool so he struck back with the experiment of the century called EPR. He and a few colleagues essentially validated the continuity of Mother Nature in a mechanism Einstein called spooky action-at-a-distance. All Einstein did was shoot two so-called ‘particles’ from an atom in diametrical directions, thus demonstrating that if one ‘particle’ was confirmed to be spinning clockwise, CW, the other instantly spins counterclockwise CCW. Einstein essentially destroyed quantum mechanics (and his own special relativity) in one brilliant blow, by far the best work of his entire life. However the mechanics come up with hundreds of contradictory and supernatural explanations in order to rescue their beloved quantum religion. 
As a summary, Wiki says it well:

"Most physicists today believe that quantum mechanics is correct, and that the EPR paradox is a "paradox" only because classical intuitions do not correspond to physical reality. How EPR is interpreted regarding locality depends on the interpretation of quantum mechanics one uses."

And then Wiki provides links to about 17 mainstream quantum interpretations and another 16 minority quantum interpretations. Fortunately the ‘paradox’ of EPR is easily resolved by positing a rational mediator of light intrinsically tied to all atoms: the EM Rope.

Legacy of Copenhagen

“ the quantities which figure in QM's laws make no claim to describe physical reality itself, but only probabilities…” (Albert Einstein, 1931)
[They never listened to you Einstein. They decreed without a doubt that the wave-particle and wavefunction exist]

The quantum mechanics are in self-imposed never ending circle of accomplishing nothing. They are in their own hell. All they can possibly do is keep on making up new particles, predictions, experiments, measurements and interpretations ad infinitum, and ad nauseum until God decides to mercifully pull the plug on them. Particle Physics is not inherently contradictory because it is built on quantification.  All one can do is keep on quantifying matter.  One never arrives at the supposed fundamental entity.

In Quantum Mechanics Force is a Particle

Everybody in science seems to toot about observation and evidence. So observe and witness that these guys do not understand what the hell they are saying:

“ Force-carrying particles can be grouped into four categories”

“ we call the particles which carry the interactions force carrier particles.” (Particle Data Group, What holds it together? The Particle Adventure (1995))

“ The photon is one of the elementary particles…, but they do carry energy, momentum and angular momentum.” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photon)

“ The fundamental particles of QCD, the quarks and gluons, carry a new form of charge, which is called color” (E. Jericha et al., Fundamental Interactions, Vienna University of Technology (2004).
http://www.itp.tuwien.ac.at/Fundamental_Interactions)

“ Gauge bosons are bosonic particles which act as carriers of the fundamental forces of Nature.” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gauge_boson) 

[Force is a verb (an action word, a dynamic concept). Usually force is defined as push or pull. So in other words particles are verb carriers or carriers of actions??? If a horse was a particle the horse would carry ‘galloping’. Or I carry my walk. A particle carries push and pull. Interesting.]

[Particles also carry other magical undefined concepts such as charge, momentum, energy and angular momentum. What can I say? They do the impossible and that is why we love them and donate billions so that the mechanics and particle physicists can go out to play.]

A Particle is a Wave is a Particle is a Wave is a Particle
“ it is now established that all objects have both wave and particle nature”

Nicholas: On whose authority???
Quantum Mechanic/Particle Physicist: On the authority of evidence and observation.  The evidence is indisputable.  
Nicholas: So you’ve actually observed a wave-particle presence??
Quantum Mechanic/Particle Physicist: No not directly.
Nicholas: So how do you know that all objects have both a wave and particle nature?
QM/PP: By indirect detection.
Nicholas: Pray what is that?
QM/PP: It is a fancy word for what we call inference.

No particle physicist or quantum mechanic has ever seen any of their particles. They infer or suppose a particle out from sensory based subjective evidence. In other words it is their OPINION that discrete particles exist and mystically communicate through their undefined 'fields' which carry forces. But you need to be initiated into the maths to understand it all. If you bypass the math and launch a criticism at them you are labelled a crank and put on a list.

Light Time Travels

“ The advanced waves travelled backward in time, that is, they arrived at the detector before they left their source.” (V. Stenger, The Unconscious Quantum, Prometheus (1995) p. 145) 

[So one non-existent idea called a wave travels backwards through another non-existent idea called time. And this is confirmed by observation.]

“ if the extra-dimensional speeds have the right relationship, one can construct a situation in which a signal following this path arrives before it is sent.” (J. Cramer, Back in time through other dimensions, The Alternate View (2006))

[Miracle after miracle. Quantum humbles even God.]

The Magical Bohr Model of the H Atom

“ Electron cloud is a term used for introducing the concept of wavefunction in low-level pedagogical introductions to atomic physics, molecular physics, chemistry or quantum chemistry. This idea corresponds to delocated electrons moving or standing like clouds around the atomic or molecular nuclei. This is indeed a better image than the very common image provided by the Bohr model which commonly leads to a visualisation of electrons driving around the nuclei along orbits like the planets around the sun.” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electron_cloud)

[In other words the peasants are inducted into the quantum religions via unfaithful images. This is the first stage of brainwashing until they learn the mystical matrix and wavefunction equations so as to be set free.]

“ According to the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, a particular electron is both ‘nowhere at all’ and ‘everywhere all at once’ until an act of measurement causes it to be detected.” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electron_configuration)

[Do I even need to point out that this is bloody insane???  Its science!!!]

“ In the true modern model of the atom, the positions of the electrons around the atom’s nucleus are described through probabilities – that is, an electron can theoretically be found at any arbitrary position around the nucleus…This pattern is referred to as its atomic orbital” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atom)

[Or maybe you guys are just full of it and the electron is an all encompassing shell woven by physical entities that you have failed to conceive]

“ The spatial components of these one-electron functions are called atomic orbitals…an atomic orbital is the region in which an electron may be found around a single atom… Fundamentally, an atomic orbital is a one-electron wavefunction… (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_orbital)

[So the electron is an orbital which is a region. Interesting.]

“ The nucleus of an atom is surrounded by a cloud of electrons, and it is primarily the interaction of these clouds that govern the chemical behavior of atoms…(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atom)

[So clouds that are orbitals that are regions interact with regions that are clouds that are orbitals. Sounds like ideas interacting with ideas to me.]

“ What happens when a covalent bond is formed between two fluorine atoms is that an orbital from one atom overlaps in space with one from another atom.” (J. Clark, Atomic Orbitals, Chemguide (2006).
http://www.chemguide.co.uk/atoms/properties/orbitsorbitals.html#top)

[So an orbital that is a region that is a cloud interacts with another cloud that is a region that is an orbital???]

“ electrons fill atomic orbitals in atoms…When two atomic orbitals overlap, they interact in two extreme ways to form two molecular orbitals” (M. Bishop, An Introduction to Chemistry: Molecular Orbital Theory, Benjamin Cummings (2001).
http://www.mpcfaculty.net/mark_bishop/molecular_orbital_theory.htm)

[So electrons that are everywhere and nowhere form orbitals that overlap everywhere and nowhere so as to establish a molecular bond. How enlightening!!!]

The HOLY INTERPRETATION OF LIGHT:

Two sacred quantum interpretations of light:

“ In vacuo, E and B perpendicular to each other and to V, and of magnitude proportional to f(RVt) where f( ) is an arbitrary function, R is the position vector, V the velocity, of magnitude c, and t is time. Or any linear combination of the above.” (A British Mechanic)

And:

"The simplest answer is that when a photon is absorbed by an electron, it is completely destroyed. All its energy is imparted to the electron, which instantly jumps to a new energy level. The photon itself ceases to be. In the equations which govern this interaction, one side of the equation (for the initial state) has terms for both the electron and the photon, while the other side (representing the final state) has only one term: for the electron.

The opposite happens when an electron emits a photon. The photon is not selected from a "well" of photons living in the atom; it is created instantaneously out of the vacuum. The electron in the high energy level is instantly converted into a lower energy-level electron and a photon. There is no in-between state where the photon is being constructed. It instantly pops into existance.

So the question is: where does the photon come from?

Strangely, it doesn't seem to come from anywhere. The universe must put the extra energy somewhere, and because electrons in atoms are electromagnetic phenomena, a photon is born with the required energy. In a weak-force interaction, say the decay of a neutron, that energy goes into a neutrino particle which is also instantaneously created. Each force has its own carrier particles, and knows how to make them.

That's really all we can say about it. There are many interpretations of what this and other phenomena in quantum mechanics mean on a deeper level, and whole libraries worth of books which argue points of view on the matter. But my personal philosophy is that of the famous physicist Richard Feynman, who said: "Shut up and calculate."" (Source: Dave Kornreich, Cornell University:  
http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/aboutus.php#1)

[btw David Mermin actually said “Shut up and calculate” not Feynman. The Quantum Mechanics should patch together a Quantum Bible to keep track of all their beliefs and wisdom literature]


So there you have it. Throughout the Cosmic Movie gazillions of photons either disappear (annihilate, converted to nothing) or appear ( created, suddenly arrive from nothing). The quantum god is hard at work willing an infinite # of particle-waves (photons) into and out of existence at every atom of the Universe through all frames of the Universal Movie. Every single atom of my body is the location of gazillions of creation and annihilation events happening continuously just to keep me alive. Or maybe I am a hologram. Who knows??? I guess I need to learn Math in order to understand or perhaps invoke one of the following 33 interpretations of quantum mechanics or be beaten into subjection by a trained quantum mechanic. I will choose the second. Here are my choices:

The Sacred Copenhagen Interpretation
Many Worlds
Consistent Histories
Ensemble interpretation, or statistical interpretation
de Broglie-Bohm Theory
Relational Quantum Mechanics
Elementary cycles
Transactional interpretation
Stochastic mechanics
Objective collapse theories
von Neumann/Wigner interpretation: consciousness causes the collapse
Many Minds
Quantum Logic
Quantum information theories
Modal interpretations of quantum theory
Time-Symmetric Theories
Branching space-time theories
Calogero conjecture
Semiotic Interpretation
Landé Interpretation
Prowave Interpretation
Time-symmetric interpretations such as the Two-state vector formalism
Pondicherry Interpretation
Quantum mysticism
London (Ticker Tape) Interpretation
Theory of Incomplete Measurements
Montevideo Interpretation
Quantum Bayesianism
Synchronized Chaos Interpretation
Vaxjo Interpretation
Dimensional Theory
Intrinsic Quantum State Interpretation
Cosmological Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, proposed by Anthony Aguirre and Max Tegmark

A history of quantum. Nothing other than a sophisticated choose your own adventure story from the 80’s and 90’s with religious undertones.  No one understand what it all means.

But when all is said and done the real kicker in all this is that quantum has no physical mechanism that can be reconciled with gravity. Discrete force-carrying quantum balls with undefined conceptual fields have no way to mediate pull or hold all things together. And they have no way of explaining the EPR experiment.

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